Our hope is that cross-validated and corrected tracks developed in this study
Appendix 1 - Significant events affecting JTWC historical best-tracks.
The manuscript benefited
Table 1 shows the total number of tropical cyclones (TCs) per year in the western North Pacific for the entire JTWC Archive
JTWC’s “Best Track” archive is used by scientists around the world, as it is a consistent and publicly available data set for all Pacific and Indian Ocean TCs. Storm ID that consists of a two-character basin designator, a two-digit TC number, and a four-digit year identifier. 1969
by National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC and Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center, Miami,
report discusses methods adopted to correct the JTWC Archive, outline the corrections and document the resultant
The 6th Space Operations Squadron, Offutt Air Force Base (AFB), Nebraska,
of Bengal (B), Arabian Sea (A), South Indian Ocean (S) and South Pacific (P).
The cause of this discrepancy is not clear, nor do the authors
ARTS - Annual Report of Typhoon Season published during 1952-55. al., 1999) and the Hong-Kong Observatory charts (Chin, 1972). L - North Atlantic Ocean, a DOD TC basin / region designator. 1997 and 1998) during the 16-year period (1985-2000). Volume 1: Basic
A few thoughts on the best track: - Additional fixes between synoptic times are a good idea but JTWC may have gone too far.
Table 2. It was the tenth named storm and the fifth typhoon of the 2012 Pacific typhoon season.The name Damrey means elephant in Khmer, the official language of Cambodia.. Damrey developed into a tropical storm north of the Tropic of Cancer on July 28 …
No page numbers. QuikSCAT - QuikSCAT is the SeaWinds scatterometer, which is a microwave radar designed specifically to measure ocean
Rejoice, for faith has been restored in the JTWC!
Each best-track … 1946
are generally higher than ten-minute mean wind speeds by 14%. 1960.
the satellite provides a 2399-km (1491 miles) wide swath. 1947
sensing in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Typhoon Damrey was a compact tropical cyclone, which became the strongest to affect the area north of the Yangtze River since 1949.
The number of TCs per
For these years, graphical comparisons were made and noted in the TC notes. measure atmospheric vertical profiles of temperature and moisture. The authors suspect that the bimodal distribution may be an artifact of the disparate databases
Universal Resource Locators (URLs):
year in the South Indian Ocean is generally greater than that in the South Pacific with four exceptions (1987, 1993,
One major reason for these discrepancies is that three disparate data sources were used to construct the original
made available in 1960 allowed a higher detection rate of TCs.
Wendy was first monitored on August 29, 1999, and was designated as a tropical depression by PAGASA the next day. designator. 1992
Tropical Storm Wendy, known in the Philippines as Tropical Storm Mameng, was a deadly tropical cyclone that affected China in early September 1999.
twice-daily visual and infrared imagery of cloud cover over a swath 1,600 nautical miles wide.
WP, 24, 2019110515, , BEST, 0, 201N, 1507E, 165, 888, ST, WP, 20, 2019100712, , BEST, 0, 161N, 1466E, 160, 890, ST. WP, 22, 2019102209, , BEST, 0, 187N, 1440E, 140, 922, ST. WP, 02, 2019022310, , BEST, 0, 119N, 1429E, 145, 895, ST. Holy jeez that’s a lotta upgrades. CP - (Also called CENTPAC, CNP and CPAC.) 1994
Model-track guidance is even more divided. These rules are: Rule 1. S - South Indian Ocean, a DOD TC basin / region designator. Wayward meteorology student on a journey back to the promised land. Comments were made about
Available from JTWC. 1956
JTWC Best Track Data of Super Typhoon 17W (Sanba) 17W.SANBA from the U.S.
for the western North Pacific, 1971-2000 for the North Indian Ocean and 1985-2000 for the Southern Hemisphere.
The article: Describes what best track data represent, compares the tools used to obtain them, their sources of uncertainty, and how AIR uses the data to inform a long-term view of tropical cyclone risk.. Dvorak, V., 1975: Tropical cyclone intensity analysis and forecasting from satellite imagery.
km (517 miles) above its surface.
NPMOC / JTWC - U. S. Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center / Joint Typhoon Warning Center, since 1998. Not sure I would have gone quite that gung-ho with Halong, but that was a very strong one too.
For once I really applaud JTWC with these changes. one-character designator (red) is assigned by DOD forecasters, and depends on the initial warning position of the
for the 16-year (1985-2000) cross-validated best-tracks.
P - South Pacific Ocean, a DOD TC basin / region designator. Department of Defense (DOD) designators for the TC basins / regions (USCINCPAC, 1995; Anstett, 1998). Two parallel line symbols
I am in no way a professional. DMSP - Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. As such, the authors have prepared detailed
Significant events affecting tropical cyclone observations in the western North Pacific, North Indian Ocean
Tropical cyclones form within particular oceanic regions around the world called
However, RSMC-Tokyo best track data give Nida’s maximum 10 … 1966
Because th… Same as TC Region.
The original temporal resolution of the JTWC observation data is 6 … The cross-validation and database correction involved a degree of subjectivity.
Thick arrows indicate that the tool is still in service. alphanumeric data was compared for similarity, but the JTWC archive was not altered. QuikSCAT is the name for about 10 km resolution, twice daily, ocean surface,
a single basin and contains the yearly totals, frequency distributions, track maps and working notes. combine the two into one and delete the second cyclone from the JTWC Archive. 4. IBTrACS (International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship) provides global tropical cyclone best track data in a centralized location to aid our understanding of the distribution, frequency, and intensity of tropical cyclones worldwide. NONAME (TD): This indicates a tropical cyclone is a real tropical depression that had to be assigned a new
ATSR - Annual Tropical Storm Report, published by the Typhoon Tracking Center, Fleet Weather Central, Guam, Mariana Islands
NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Central, Guam, M. I. NWP - Northwest Pacific tropical cyclone basin / region. Bulbul (Matmo) made landfall over the Ganges Delta as a 105kt category 3 (operationally estimated as 85kt category 2). This archive also contains valuable tropical cyclone fix data and objective aid forecasts, which should
is undocumented. TTC - Typhoon Tracking Center, Fleet Weather Central (FWC), U.S. 1975
Table 1. footprint is the largest at 43 km by 69 km.
JTWC Archive data cannot be refuted: When the ATCR documentation is insufficient to refute the JTWC Archive
Joint Typhoon Warning Center: Regional Specialized Meteorological Center* The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) provides tropical cyclone analysis, forecast and warning support for the Department of Defense, and other US Government assets in …
Steps 1 through 3 formed a loop which was iterated upon many times. basin designator, a two-digit TC number, and a four-digit year identifier (e.g., WP012000 is the first TC of
The 1971-1976 ATCRs contain significantly
Best track data for the Eastern Pacific, Central Pacific and the Atlantic are from the National Hurricane Center. that KAREN and LUCILLE are two parts of one TC, so we combined them into KAREN-LUCILLE and deleted the original
The textual data was converted to ESRI shapefile format. tion with the best-track dataset available from the NHC, JTWC, and the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC; Jarvinen et al. I like most of the changes, particularly the Lekima, Bualoi, and aforementioned Hagibis peak intensity estimates. They are NOT endorsed by any professional institution or storm2k.org.
The satellite orbits the earth 14 times daily from 833
peak and two secondary peaks are centered around 28, 22 and 40 cyclones per year, respectively.
They are posted with the JTWC Archive on the JTWC web site.
SWP - South-West Pacific Ocean TC basin / region designator. I. The most interesting part about JTWC best track is that they seem to follow different standards every year.
This is not specifically included in
ATCF uses the same database. As shown in Table 1, the instruments,
� 55-degree scanning pattern at the Earth Observation Satellite orbit of 705 km achieves a 2,330-km swath. The authors
AFOS - Automation of Field Operation and Services system, which was developed by Ford Aerospace Co. for U.S. National
Appendices 3, 4 and 5 present statistics,
1987 and 1999; Neumann
Alphanumeric data not found in JTWC Archive or ATCR: When a TC track is documented in the ATCR and position
Just about every major typhoon got an upgrade, although I’m most surprised about Wutip getting massively buffed to 145 kt and 895 mbar. Each best track is a smoothed path, versus a precise and very erratic fix-to-fix path, of a tropical cyclone's position and intensity history. NIO - North Indian Ocean, a TC basin / region designator. See Appendix 2 for an explanation of basin designators. Prior to 1998 the JTWC was located on Guam, Mariana Islands and is now located at
Southern Hemisphere Number of Tropical Cyclones Per Year, 1945-2000. A - Arabian Sea Basin / region, a DOD TC basin / region designator.
Since formation of the JTWC in 1959, the AOR has gradually increased
With an Instantaneous Cyclone Energy (ICE) score of 198.62 units, it edges out Dorian (195.52 units) to become the third strongest TC of 2019. 99 pp.
Name: Each TC is either assigned a name or the generic name "NONAME". CPHC - Central Pacific Hurricane Center in Honolulu, HI. per year.
JTWC Archive - The JTWC Tropical Cyclone Best-tracks database. Weather Service. 1992
This report documents efforts to resolve discrepancies associated within the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) tropical
I.). Rule 7. E - The eastern North Pacific basin / region, a DOD TC basin / region designator. For example, totals for the North Indian Ocean TC (1971-76) in the JTWC Archive are
The geographical domain of the archive is the
Table 1. RSMC Tokyo-Typhoon Center Best Track Data RSMC Best Track Data (Text) (1951-2020) RSMC Best Track Data (Graphics) (1951-2020) https://www.metoc.navy.mil/jtwc/jtwc.html?best-tracks, https://twitter.com/1900hurricane/status/1181234607569719297, https://twitter.com/1900hurricane/status/1181234607569719297?s=19, Active Storms/Invests - Atlantic/EastPAC/CentralPAC, Active Storms - SE Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea/Bay of Bengal, SouthPAC.
Corrections were limited to years for which supporting documentation was found: 1950-2000
_____, 1950-51: Annual Report of the Typhoon Post Analysis Program. 1948
Block 5D-3 satellites are in near polar orbiting, sun synchronous orbits at an altitude of approximately 458 nautical
Report NESDIS 11.
North Indian Ocean Frequency Distribution of TCs Per Year, 1977-2000, Appendix 5 - Southern Hemisphere Tropical Cyclones, 1945-2000. Each of these appendices is for
WNP - The western North Pacific tropical cyclone basin / region.
Storm ID: Each tropical cyclone must has a unique eight-character Storm ID that consists of a two-character
The Tropical Cyclone Best Track Data Site was developed to place tropical cyclone best track data information on the Internet. 1983
Air Weather Service, 1949: Report on Post Analysis of Typhoons in the western North Pacific, 1947.
instantaneous winds (speed up to about 45 knots and direction) at a 10-m height from satellite passes as processed
bonus is that the frequency of TC observations increased from one per day to several per hour.
Since tropical cyclone historical and operational forecasts of wind radii and intensity are in units of nautical miles and knots, re- 1976
Make recommendations for changes in the JTWC Archive. 1985
The distribution consists of three peaks: the dominant
A peak still occurs at 28 TCs per year, but the extremes
The observed TC best-track data over WNP was obtained from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (Chu et al.
The first publication
The maximum and minimum for the whole 56-year period (1945-2000) were 55 (1963) and 13 (1945), respectively,
As a result, the authors have less confidence
data in the western North Pacific. Rule 2. URL - Universal Resource Locator. Appendix 6 is a list of acronyms used in this report.
is not specifically included in the best-track file, but in a separate header file. This is mainly due to difficulties finding
Typhoon Post Analysis Board,
The Area of Responsibility (AOR) for JTWC and its predecessors has changed to fit the needs of the U.S. Department of
SH is a JTWC Archive basin / region designator. forecast agencies in the JTWC Area of Responsibility (AOR) use ten-minute mean winds.
Based on cursory check, the authors recommend that a rigorous inter-comparison between the JTWC documentation and
Terra MODIS is viewing the entire Earth's surface every 1 to 2 days, acquiring data in 36 spectral bands. Same as TC Basin. TPC - Tropical Prediction Center in Miami, FL.
Rule 4. The peak is 28 TCs per year. 1981
MIDAS - Meteorological Interactive Display and Analysis System, which was manufactured by Global Science & Technology
at 19.35, 22.235, 37.0 and 85.5 GHz. Amer.
US JTWC forecast track of Tropical Cyclone Rolly (international name Goni). This sensor
AOR was only the western North Pacific Ocean. Include final corrections in the JTWC Archive. to note that the pre-1960 totals are generally less than post-1961 totals. The western North Pacific Ocean, a JTWC Archive / ATCF TC basin / region
There is no ATCR documentation of the Southern Hemisphere for
The body of this
from NOAA/NESDIS, 5200 Auth Rd., Washington DC, 20233.
Soc., 81, 1231-1240.